Schedule:
 Lectures:
Monday, Wednesday, Friday, 11–12, MR13.
Example Classes:
#1:
Monday 4 February, 3:30–5, MR5.
Example Sheet #1
#2:
Monday 18 February, 3:30–5, MR5.
Example Sheet #2
#3:
Monday 4 March, 3:30–5, MR5.
#4:
TBD
Revision Session:
TBD
Friday, 18 January 2018
 First Lecture. The Continuum Problem and its history. General
remark about model constructions in set theory and obstacles created by
Gödel's completeness and incompleteness theorems. The language of
set theory (no function and constant symbols).
Absoluteness, upwards and downwards absoluteness.
Quantifierfree formulas and their absoluteness. Remark that even simple
formulas such as \(x = \varnothing\) are not quantifierfree.

Monday, 21 January 2018
 Second Lecture. For nontransitive models, the formula
\(x = \varnothing\) is not absolute. Transitive models.
\(\Delta_0\)formulas and
\(\Delta_0^T\)formulas. Absoluteness of
\(\Delta_0\)formulas and \(\Delta_0^T\)formulas for transitive models
and transitive models of \(T\), respectively.

Wednesday, 23 January 2018
 Third Lecture. Basic systems of set theory (\(\mathsf{FST}\),
\(\mathsf{Z}\), \(\mathsf{ZF}\), \(\mathsf{ZFC}\)). Examples of \(\Delta_0^T\)formulas:
singleton, pair, successor, union, function, injection etc.
Wellfoundedness and the definition of ordinals. Under the assumption of
the axiom of Foundation, the formula "\(x\) is an ordinal" is absolute.

Friday, 25 January 2018
 Fourth Lecture.
Absoluteness of wellfoundedness. Absoluteness of operations defined by
transfinite recursion from absolute formulas. Defining the \(\models\)
relation inside a transitive model. Absoluteness of the statement
\(\mathrm{Cons}(T)\). Once more Gödel's incompleteness theorem; the
theory \( \mathsf{ZFC}^* := \mathsf{ZFC} + \mathrm{Cons}(\mathsf{ZFC})\)
does not prove its own consistency; the theory \( \mathsf{ZFC}+\)"there
is a transitive set model of \(\mathsf{ZFC}\)" proves the consistency of
\(\mathsf{ZFC}^* \). Examples of transitive models: the von Neumann
hierarchy and collections of hereditarily small sets.

Monday, 28 January 2018
 Fifth Lecture. If \(\lambda > \omega\) is a limit ordinal, then
\(\mathbf{V}_\lambda\models\mathsf{Z}\). Failures of Replacement in \(\mathbf{V}_{\omega+\omega}\) and \(\mathbf{V}_{\omega_1}\). Strong limit cardinals, inaccessible cardinals. If \(\kappa\) is inaccessible, then \(\mathbf{V}_\kappa\models\mathsf{ZFC}\).

Wednesday, 30 January 2018
 Sixth Lecture. Getting countable elementary substructures
using the Skolem hull and the TarskiVaught criterion
(LöwenheimSkolem theorem). Mostowski Collapsing Theorem (without
proof). Failure of absoluteness of formulas such as "... is countable"
or
"... is a cardinal".

Friday, 1 February 2018
 Seventh Lecture. Observation: the truth value of
\(\mathsf{CH}\) does not change between the surrounding universe and the
countable transitive model of \(\mathsf{ZFC}\) constructed by the
LöwenheimSkolemMostowski method from an inaccessible cardinal.
Being hereditarily of size \(<\kappa\), in particular, \(\mathbf{HF}\)
and \(\mathbf{HC}\). Axioms valid in \(\mathbf{HC}\): validity of
Replacement and failure of Power Set.

Monday, 4 February 2018
 Eighth Lecture. If \(\kappa\) is inaccessible,
\(\mathbf{H}_\kappa\models\mathsf{ZFC}\). Tarski's Undefinability of
Truth. Undefinability of Definability. Internal definition of
definability.
 First example class. Example Sheet #1

Wednesday, 6 February 2018
 Ninth Lecture. The definable power set \(\mathcal{D}(A)\)
and the definition of the constructible hierarchy. Properties of the
constructible hierarchy. Absoluteness of the functions \(\mathrm{Def}\)
and \(\mathcal{D}\). The axiom of constructibility: characterisation of transitive set models of \(\mathsf{ZFC}+\mathbf{V}{=}\mathbf{L}\) (part one).

Friday, 8 February 2018
 Tenth Lecture. Characterisation of transitive models of
\(\mathsf{ZFC}+\mathbf{V}{=}\mathbf{L}\) (part two). Countable
transitive models of \(\mathsf{ZFC}+\mathbf{V}{=}\mathbf{L}\). The
axioms of set theory in \(\mathbf{L}_\kappa\) for \(\kappa\)
inaccessible: Pairing, Union, and Power Set.

Monday, 11 February 2018
 Eleventh Lecture. The axioms of set theory in
\(\mathbf{L}_\kappa\) for \(\kappa\) inaccessible: Separation. The
Condensation Lemma. Discussion: the Condensation Lemma proved in the
metaset theory proves that \(\mathbf{L}\) can have at most \(\aleph_1\)
many subsets of the naturals; that is not enough to prove
\(\mathsf{CH}\) in \(\mathbf{L}\).

Wednesday, 13 February 2018
 Twelfth Lecture. Internalisation of the Condensation Lemma
and \(\mathsf{GCH}\) in \(\mathbf{L}\). Avoiding the use of the
inaccessible cardinal: Lévy Reflection Theorem (cf. Example Sheet
#2 (15)) and a use of the Compactness Theorem.
Proof that the existence of regular limit cardinals cannot be proved in
\(\mathsf{ZFC}\).

Friday, 15 February 2018
 Thirteenth Lecture. Cancelled due to illness.

Monday, 18 February 2018
 Thirteenth Lecture. Inner models. Minimality Theorem for
\(\mathbf{L}\). The technique of inner models and its limitations: the
technique of inner models cannot show the consistency of
\(\neg\mathsf{CH}\). Illustration: "inner models" and "outer models" of
the theory of fields of characteristic zero. Adding an injection from
\(\aleph_2^\mathbf{L}\) to the reals may end up collapsing
\(\aleph_1^\mathbf{L}\). Desiderata: a method of constructing outer
models in order to get \(\mathsf{ZFC}\) and preservation theorems for
cardinals
 Second example class.
Example Sheet #2

