# First direct observation of Dirac fermions in graphite

@article{Zhou2006FirstDO, title={First direct observation of Dirac fermions in graphite}, author={S. Y. Zhou and Gey-Hong Gweon and Jeff Graf and A. V. Fedorov and Catalin D. Spataru and Renee D. Diehl and Yakov Kopelevich and D-H Lee and Steven G. Louie and Alessandra Lanzara}, journal={Nature Physics}, year={2006}, volume={2}, pages={595-599} }

Originating from relativistic quantum field theory, Dirac fermions have been invoked recently to explain various peculiar phenomena in condensed-matter physics, including the novel quantum Hall effect in graphene1,2, the magnetic-field-driven metal–insulator-like transition in graphite3,4, superfluidity in 3He (ref. 5) and the exotic pseudogap phase of high-temperature superconductors6,7. Despite their proposed key role in those systems, direct experimental evidence of Dirac fermions has been… Expand

#### 376 Citations

Observation of Landau levels of Dirac fermions in graphite

- Physics
- 2007

The unique electronic behaviour of monolayer and bilayer graphene1,2 is a result of the unusual quantum-relativistic characteristics of the so-called ‘Dirac fermions’ (DFs) that carry charge in these… Expand

Electronic properties of graphene in a strong magnetic field

- Physics
- 2011

We review the basic aspects of electrons in graphene (two-dimensional graphite) exposed to a strong perpendicular magnetic field. One of its most salient features is the relativistic quantum Hall… Expand

Bound states of Dirac fermions in monolayer gapped graphene in the presence of local perturbations

- Physics
- 2016

In graphene,conductance electrons behave as massless relativistic particles and obey an analogue of the Dirac equation in two dimensions with a chiral nature.For this reason,the bounding of electrons… Expand

Dirac equation for quasi-particles in graphene and quantum field theory of their Coulomb interaction

- Physics
- 2012

There is evidence for existence of massless Dirac quasiparticles in graphene, which satisfy Dirac equation in (1+2) dimensions near the so called Dirac points which lie at the corners at the… Expand

Quasiparticle dynamics in graphene

- Physics
- 2007

The effectively massless, relativistic behaviour of graphene’s charge carriers—known as Dirac fermions—is a result of its unique electronic structure, characterized by conical valence and conduction… Expand

Observation of interaction-induced phenomena of relativistic quantum mechanics

- Communications Physics
- 2021

Relativistic quantum mechanics has been developed for nearly a century to characterize the high-energy physics in quantum domain, and various intriguing phenomena without low-energy counterparts have… Expand

Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy

- Physics
- 2008

A remarkable manifestation of the quantum character of electrons in matter is offered by graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite. Unlike conventional solids where electrons are described with the… Expand

Supersymmetric structure of quantum Hall effects in graphene

- Physics
- 2008

Abstract Electrons behave as Dirac fermions in graphene, though their speed is given by the Fermi velocity. In such a system the Zeeman splitting is exactly as large as the Landau level separation.… Expand

Heavy Dirac fermions in a graphene/topological insulator hetero-junction

- Physics
- 2016

The low energy physics of both graphene and surface states of three-dimensional topological insulators is described by gapless Dirac fermions with linear dispersion. In this work, we predict the… Expand

Collision-dominated spin transport in graphene and Fermi liquids

- Physics
- 2011

In a clean Fermi liquid, due to spin up/spin down symmetry, the dc spin current driven by a magnetic field gradient is finite even in the absence of impurities. Hence, the spin conductivity σs… Expand

#### References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 27 REFERENCES

Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene

- Medicine, Physics
- Nature
- 2005

This study reports an experimental study of a condensed-matter system (graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon) in which electron transport is essentially governed by Dirac's (relativistic) equation and reveals a variety of unusual phenomena that are characteristic of two-dimensional Dirac fermions. Expand

Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry's phase in graphene

- Physics, Materials Science
- Nature
- 2005

An experimental investigation of magneto-transport in a high-mobility single layer of graphene observes an unusual half-integer quantum Hall effect for both electron and hole carriers in graphene. Expand

Electronic properties of disordered two-dimensional carbon

- Materials Science, Physics
- 2006

Two-dimensional carbon, or graphene, is a semimetal that presents unusual low-energy electronic excitations described in terms of Dirac fermions. We analyze in a self-consistent way the effects of… Expand

Field theory in superfluid 3He: what are the lessons for particle physics, gravity, and high-temperature superconductivity?

- Physics, Medicine
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- 1999

High-temperature superconductors are believed to belong to class 4, which has gapless fermionic quasiparticles with a "relativistic" spectrum close to gap nodes, which allows application of ideas developed for superfluid 3He-A. Expand

Electron spectral function and algebraic spin liquid for the normal state of underdoped high T(c) superconductors.

- Physics, Medicine
- Physical review letters
- 2001

This work proposes to describe the spin fluctuations in the normal state (spin-pseudogap phase) of underdoped high T(c) cuprates as a manifestation of an algebraic spin liquid, and shows how a coherent quasiparticle peak appears as spin and charge recombine. Expand

Algebraic Fermi liquid from phase fluctuations: "topological" fermions, vortex "berryons," and QED3 theory of cuprate superconductors.

- Physics, Medicine
- Physical review letters
- 2001

Within the phase fluctuation model for the pseudogap state of cuprate superconductors, a novel statistical "Berry phase" interaction is identified between the nodal quasiparticles and fluctuating vortex-antivortex excitations which regulates the low energy fermiology. Expand

Unconventional Quasiparticle Lifetime in Graphite.

- Materials Science, Medicine
- Physical review letters
- 1996

The influence of electron-electron scattering on quasiparticle lifetimes in graphite is calculated and the inverse lifetime increases linearly with energy, in agreement with recent experiments. Expand

Electronic and magnetic properties of nanographite ribbons

- Materials Science, Physics
- 1999

Electronic and magnetic properties of ribbon-shaped nanographite systems with zigzag and armchair edges in a magnetic field are investigated by using a tight-binding model. One of the most remarkable… Expand

First-principles study of the electronic properties of graphite.

- Physics, Medicine
- Physical review. B, Condensed matter
- 1991

The agreement obtained in the framework of the density-functional theory for electronic energies at the Fermi level is surprisingly good. Expand

Electronic properties of graphene multilayers.

- Materials Science, Physics
- Physical review letters
- 2006

It is shown that the quasiparticle decay rate has a minimum as a function of energy, there is a universal minimum value for the in-plane conductivity of order e(2)/h per plane and, unexpectedly, the c-axis conductivity is enhanced by disorder at low doping, leading to an enormous conductivity anisotropy at low temperatures. Expand